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Warning sign about mines in a village, Lugansk region, Eastern Ukraine, 2017-2020
© House of European History, Brussels, Belgium


The Kosovo War, which ended in 1999, was the last armed conflict of the most violent century in European history. However, the hope that such atrocities would never be repeated again was not realised. Some former Soviet republics have become victims of the geopolitical aspirations of neighbouring Russia. Regional armed tensions and ‘frozen conflicts’ are part of the current reality in Europe. Civilians in Georgia and Ukraine have witnessed military actions and atrocities. Europeans in these countries experienced lifelong traumas and many lost their lives or homes.

Areas that are no longer on the frontline remain dangerous because of landmines and unexploded ammunition.