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Tinker imagineers, Utrecht, The Netherlands

In the immediate aftermath of the war, a specific youth culture did not yet exist in Europe. However, newly emerging youth cultures influenced by America attracted wide scores of Europe’s youth who wished to express their individuality and opposition to the conformity of society. Different subcultures emerged in almost every country: Teddy Boys and Rockers in the UK, Blousons noirs in France, Teppisti in Italy, Nozem in the Netherlands, Halbstarken in Germany, Bikiniarze in Poland, Jampecok in Hungary, Malagambisti in Romania, Potápkas or Páseks in Czechoslovakia, and Stilyagi in the Soviet Union.

Authorities in East and West were alarmed by the rise of the youth subcultures. Increasingly, government and the police viewed these young people as hooligans and juvenile delinquents, and harassed them because of their appearance.