The Renaissance is often characterised as an era of sumptuous luxury, with rich velvets, shining pearls, and gold ornaments. Fashion was extreme - yards of lace-trimmed ruffs, exaggerated padded shoulders, and elaborately underpropped skirts. But what did those who were not elite enough to afford such luxuries do to achieve fashionable styles?
The European Union potentially represents a new type of global power. Classic nation states sharply distinguished between internal power, based on law and politics, and external power, deriving from wealth and military force.